Великий Устюг



Время соединения миров
Великий Устюг

Sanskrit names in Moscow region

Context:

  1. Moskva River
  2. Yamuga River
  3. Desna (east of Moscow)
  4. Desna (west of Moscow)
  5. Nara River
  6. Lama River
  7. Saurovo

 

I. Moskva River

Moskva is the Russian name of Moscow.  Moska is a Sanskrit word referring to freedom from ignorance, self-realization and self-knowledge.  It is liberation from samsara (see Russian city Samara), the cycle of death and rebirth or reincarnation and all of the suffering and limitation of worldly existence. It is a state of absolute freedom, peace and bliss, attained through Self-Realization. This is the supreme goal of human endeavor.  The concept of moksha is found in Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism.

City Moskva (Moscow) is located on the banks of Moskva River.  Not by chance that it is the capital of the biggest country in the world.  America’s greatest psychic Edgar Cayce said «Russia will become beacons of hope for the world».  It was known to the Indian sages long time ago.  Also, see Russian river Moksha.

Grand Duke Ivan I of Moscow (1288 – 1341) who moved the Russian capital from Vladimir to Moscow in 1325 had the nickname Kalita.  Modern Russian language does not use the word ‘kalita’.  The Russian historians traditionally believe that it was related to his wealth or the moneybag he carried on his belt to give alms.  On the other hand, in Sanskrit ‘Kalita’ means ‘provided with’ that is quite close to the meaning in the Old Russian.

II. Yamuga River

The source of River Yamuga is about 90 km. from the Kremlin.  The river crosses twice the federal highway M-10 that connects Moscow and Saint-Petersburg.  Everyone can see the ancient name in Russian and English.  Near the source of river Yamuga there is the famous factory of Christmas-tree toys.  The main Russian Christmas tree in Kremlin is decorated only with these toys.

Mouth of the river Yamuga is north of town Klin located near the border of Moscow and Tver regions.  The biggest enterprise in Klin is the brewery belonging to the Sun Brewing, which is majority-owned by an Indian conglomerate.  In Russian, beer is called pivo.  In Sanskrit, piva means ‘water’.

The Yamuga River flows into the Sestra River.  In Russian, Sestra means ‘sister’.  There are no logical explanations of such name’s origin.  Taken into account the listed facts, it might have been a modern Russian version of Sanskrit word Ksetra that means field, area, etc.  See Kuruksetra.

Klin is home town of Tchaikovsky (see Section V) — the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, bolstered by his appearances as a guest conductor in Europe and the United States.  His surname comes from the Russian and Indian word ‘chai‘ (i.e. tea).

III.  Desna (east of Moscow)

There are two rivers with the name Desna in the Moscow region.  Desna is a Sanskrit word meaning gift, offering.  It is a feminine name in India.  Siva and Vishnu sometimes have names Desna.

Desna River (Guslitsa basin) is located to the east of Moscow (Orekhovo-Zuyevsky district of Moscow region).  The distance to center of Moscow is ~90 km.  The length of this Desna River is 25 km.

IV. Desna (west of Moscow)

Desna River (Pakhra basin) starts in Naro-Fominsk district of Moscow Region.  The distance to the center of Moscow is ~50 km. (west).  The source of this Desna River is near town Aprelevka named after the nearby Aprelevka or April River.

April month of the Gregorian calendar is the second month of the Persian calendar and is called Saur.  See for Saurovo (Section VII).  Persian traditions are present in the magnificent Taj Mahal.

Desna flows south of Moscow to the east, pours into Pakhra River near estate Dubrovitsy.  The length of Desna is 88 km.  Christian Church of the Sign is located on the confluence of Desna and Pakhra Rivers.  The church is famous for its unique architecture and its mysterious history.  It is the only Russian church that is topped with a crown.  The church was consecrated in 1704, a year after the founding of new Russian capital St. Petersburg.

See Lenin’s Gorki located near the above mentioned Pakhra River.

V. Nara

The Nara River ~70 km. southwest from Moscow.  Its length is ~170 km.    In the winter the Nara stays under the ice until April.  April is Saur (see above).  The Nara River starts in the Poletskoye Lake and flows through the Nara ponds.  The distance between the lake and the ponds is ~1,5 km.  Between them there is village Naro-Osanovo that is a part of Odintsovsky District (Moscow region).  See Odin & Scanda.

Nara is a Sanskrit word with many meanings, including: man, hero, etc.  It might be stated that Osanovo clearly comes from another Sanskrit word.  Asana in Sanskrit does appear in many contexts denoting a static physical position.  It is traditionally used in the practice of yoga.

The ultimate goal of Yoga is moksha (liberation), pronounced in Sanskrit as Moska.  See Moskva River above and Moksha River in the Central Russia.  Description of an early form of yoga called nirodhayoga (yoga of cessation) is contained in the Mokshadharma section of Mahabharata. The Bhagavad Gita (‘Song of the Lord’) uses the term ‘yoga’ extensively in a variety of ways.  It was revealed at Kurukshetra.  See Kursk battle.

The holy Hindu Mahabharata defines the purpose of yoga as the experience of uniting the individual Atman with the universal Brahman that pervades all things.  Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the Universe and final cause of all that exists.  Atman is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.  See Atman & Ataman.

Serpukhov is located on the Nara River, 100 km. south of Moscow.  Near Serpukhov the Nara River flows into Oka River.  See Oka & Gujarat.  Peacock has been depicted on the Serpukhov’s cost of arm since 18th century.

Peacock is the national bird of India.  In Sanskrit, peacock is mayura.  Mayura is the root of several settlements in Yaroslavl and Vologda regions.  Peacock’s open tail symbolizes the Heaven and a higher state of consciousness.

The Peacock Throne was a symbol and the seat of the Mughal emperors of India in the Red Fort of Delhi.  See Russian village Delhi village in the Tver region.  Red is traditional and most beloved Russian color.  The Peacock Throne was commissioned in the early 17th century by Emperor Shah Jahan who is considered one of the greatest Mughals.  His vast Mughal Empire covered almost the entire Indian subcontinent.  He built the world famous Taj Mahal.

Mystical king Ludwig II of Bavaria (1845 – 1886) installed a romanticised version of the Peacock throne in his Linderhof Palace.  This ruler is often called the Swan King.  Order of the Swan was a religious association of European princes and nobles formed in the 15th century and revived in the 19th century in the time of King Ludwig II of Bavaria.  In Hindu tradition, the swan is associated with Saraswati and is a symbolism for spiritual perfection, transcendence and moksha.

Ludwig spent all the royal revenues on building castles.  Neuschwanstein Castle (‘New Swanstone Castle’) in the Alps is his best known project.  It has appeared in several Hollywood movies and served as the inspiration for Disneyland’s Sleeping Beauty Castle.

It is believed that the world famous Tchaikovsky’s ballet ‘Swan Lake’ reflects the life of Ludwig II.  Prince of the ‘Swan Lake’ was named Siegfried like the favorite Ludwig’s hero in the operas of Richard Wagner, whom Bavarian king generously patronized.  Sigurd is a legendary hero of Norse mythology.  See Odin & Scanda.  In the Soviet Union times ‘The Swan Lake’ ballet was shown on TV when its ruler died.  The ballet was repeatedly broadcast by all USSR TV channels when the Soviet Union collapsed in August 1991.  Tchaikovsky foresaw in his ballet (1877) the circumstances of Ludwig’s tragic death (1886).  The Swan king’s favorite theme was the Holy Grail legend.

Serpukhov is also famous for its wonderworking icon of the Mother of God called ‘The Inexaustible Cup’.  In ‘The Teaching of Living Ethics’ (or Agni Yoga) created by Helena Roerich and Morya (one of the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom) it is stated that the true meaning of the symbol of the Cup is the acceptance and accumulation of spiritual gifts that are used to serve the World.

In the East, the Buddha’s Cup is revered as having the great spiritual significance.  This Cup came to the Roerichs in 1934 when they lived in Kullu.  In exactly the same way they received in 1923 the Chintamani Stone while staying in Paris.  Moving along the Earth, these sacred artifacts find themselves in places that are centers of evolutionary work, coming at different epochs to different people chosen by the Shambala.

The Buddha has passed his cup to the inhabitants of Vaishali.  After his death, it was transferred to Purushapura, the city of Purusha (Sanskrit: Purusa), modern Peshawar.  The Purusa or true Self is the ultimate goal of all Vedic practices and all Vedantic philosophy.  Purusha (Purusa) is a Sanskrit term for the Cosmic Being behind the Universe, the Spirit within all things.

Svyatoslav Roerich was the last of the known keepers of the Buddha’s Cup.  He estimated its age from 10 000 to 12 000 years.  He indicated that it had a water pattern.  It could be related to the sign of Aquarius (Kumbha).  Mankind is entering the Age of Aquarius, which should become a long-awaited Golden Age for the planet.

Kashira is one of the oldest cities of the Moscow region.  Kashira is located on the Oka River, ~115 km. south of Moscow and ~60 km. from the point of conjunction of the rivers Nara and Oka.  The city Kashira is named after the Kashira River and the first settlement was built on the conjunction of the Kashira River and the Oka River.  See Kashmir & Kashyapa and Oka & Gujarat.

Naro-Fominsk is located on the Nara River, ~20 km. south from its source and ~70 km. southwest from Moscow.  As it is said above (section IV), Desna River (Pakhra basin) begins in Naro-Fominsk district of the Moscow Region.  Naro-Fominsk is a town whose present name came from two settlements – Nara and Fominskoe.

Nara-Narayana is a Hindu deity pair. Nara-Narayana is the twin-brother avatar of the God Vishnu on Earth, working for the preservation of Dharma or righteousness. In the concept of Nara-Narayana, the human soul Nara is the eternal companion of the Divine Narayana.  The Hindu epic Mahabharata identifies the God Krishna (an avatar of Vishnu) with Narayana and Arjuna — the chief hero of the epic — with Nara.  There are striking similarities and the parallels between the great battle of Kuru filed described in the Mahabharata (one of the most important Hindu epics) and the Kursk battle that changed the course of the Second World War and the European history.  See Kursk battle.

Naro-Fominsk’s local football club founded in 1929 had name Nara-Desna from 2005 to 2007.  Approximately 100 km. south of Nara-Desna is city Kaluga.  It is believed that Vyasa compiled the Puranas (see Section VI) in the beginning of Kali Yuga.  Kaluga’s motto on the city’s coat of arms is «The Cradle of Space Exploration».  In the Kaluga region there are rivers with Sanskrit names called Agra and Ugra.  See Sanskrit names in Kaluga region.

As it is said above, the name Naro-Fominsk is made of  local river Nara and former village Fominskoe.  Fominskoe means named after apostle Foma (Thomas).  He is traditionally believed to be the first Christian missionary who came to India in 52 AD to preach the Gospel and spread the Christian faith.  Thomas the Apostle was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, according to the New Testament.  According to tradition, Thomas was allegedly killed near Chennai in 72AD.  That place now is called St.Thomas Mount.

St.Thomas Mount is 10 km. from the garden of Theosophical Society in Adyar (Chennai).  The Theosophy Society – Adyar is the name of a section of the Theosophical Society founded by Russian Madam Blavatsky in 1875.  She was born into an aristocratic in the Russian Empire in Yekaterinoslav (modern Ukrainian city Dnipro) located near the confluence of Dnieper and Samara Rivers.    Dnieper River is one of the major rivers of Europe (fourth by length).  Dnieper River starts in the Smolensk region (Russia).  The Smolensk region is also the place of sources of the rivers Desna (tributary of the Dnieper) and Urga.  See Sanskrit names in Smolensk region.  The first European who reached India was Russian merchant Afanasy Nikitin (middle of 15th century).  He died in Smolensk on his way from India to his native city Tver.  See Sanskrit names in Tver region.  A famous Russian poet and statesman Tyutchev was born in his noble family’s estate in Bryansk region.  The estate is located few kilometers from the shore of the mentioned Desna River.  Tyutchev is the author of a short poem that precisely characterizes Russia:

Who would grasp Russia with the mind?

For her no yardstick was created:

Her soul is of a special kind,

By faith alone appreciated.

(translated by John Dewey)

In the south of Chennai, next to Adyar (and the Theosophical Society) there is residential neighborhood Thiruvanmiyur.  Its name derives from Thiru-Valmiki-Ur, meaning location of the temple of Valmiki.  This small temple is believed to be 1300 years old and is located in the middle of the East Coast Road, lying opposite to the Marundeeswarar temple.  A few decades ago, this was a part of the Marundeeswarar temple land.  It is said that Valmiki came to the Marundeeswarar temple to worship Siva and was blessed here.  At this point is the locality Kamaraj Nagar.  See Russian rivers Kama and its tributary Siva in Russian Kama & Siva.

Another temple associated with Valmiki in Chennai is Siva temple in Koyambedu.  This place is just 12 km. northwest from Thiruvanmiyur and the Marundeeswarar temple. Practically similar distance is from the neighboring Theosophical Society.  The original name of Koyambedu was Kusa-Lava-Puri, with two temples dedicated to Narayana and Siva, situated close to each other.  According to legend, both the temples existed during Valmiki’s time.  It is said that his ashram was located at this point.  Valmiki provided shelter in his ashram to Rama’s pregnant wife Sita when she was exiled by her husband to the forest due to the gossip.  Here she gave birth to the above mentioned twin boys Lava and Kusha.  They were brought up by Valmiki along with their mother Sita and Valmiki taught Lava and Kusha to sing the Ramayana (the story of Rama).

Valmiki himself got the story of Rama from Vedic sage Narada who was half human and half God.  The highest peak and its foothills river of the Urals (the world’s oldest extant mountain range) in Russia still bear ancient name Naroda.  See Narada in the Urals.

After the birth Valmiki was given name Ratnakara that is a Sanskrit term for ‘ocean’ and ‘repository of jewels’.  Narada gave him the new name and the status of Maharishi (great sage) after he performed tapasya (deep meditation) for several years and became the foremost of ascetics.  Huge anthills formed around Ratnakara and this earned him the name of Valmiki.  In Sanskrit, the word ‘Valmika’ means an ‘ant hill’.  Since with the help and blessing of Narada Ratnakara came out of the ant hill, he got the name of Valmiki.  It is believed that during this deep meditation his whole mind was concentrate on the chanting of the name of the Lord Rama.

Some believe that initially Ratnakara chanted the word ‘Mara’ that became ‘Rama’, the name of god Vishnu.  Sanskrit word ‘mara’ has the same meaning in the Russian and other Slavic people folklore.  Mara is a Slavic and Baltic goddess associated with seasonal rites based on the idea of death and rebirth of nature. Mara is associated with winter’s death and rebirth of nature in the coming of spring.  This Slavic festival with bonfires has a common base with Hindu festival Holi.  See  Prahlada in Russia.

VI. Lama

In Tibetan Buddhism, Lama is a title for a teacher of the Dharma.  It is similar to the Sanskrit term guru.  Lama River (~140 km.) starts in Moscow region and flows into Shosha River in neighboring Tver region near its border with Moscow region.  Lama’s source is ~90 km. from the center of Moscow.

Lama is the name of a river and one the biggest lakes of the Putorana Plateau on the north of Krasnoyarsk krai.  In Sanskrit, puraa literally means ‘ancient, old’.  Indeed, there are ancient ruins with megalithic foundation in inaccessible places of the plateau.  It is believed that they belong to the unknown ancient civilization, flourished here thousands year ago when the climate in Siberia was warm.  The Indian Puranas is encyclopedic source of knowledge about the history of the Universe, the genealogy of gods, kings, heroes, as well as Hindu philosophy and cosmology.  Vyasa is credited as the compiler of the Puranas.  His teacher was Narada.  See Narada in the Urals.  The distance from Moscow to the Putorana Plateau is ~3000 km.  Not by chance that Russia’s geographical center is situated on the Putorana Plateau and Lake Lama is its pearl.

The Putorana Plateau is the only large site fully folded by basalt.  This is the world’s second largest trap plateau after the Dean plateau in India.  The area of ​​the plateau is 250 thousand km2 and comparable to the territory of Great Britain (244 thousand km2).  There are more than 25 000 lakes that together form the second largest store of fresh water in Russia by capacity after Lake Baikal.

The plateau’s the Talnikovy Waterfall is the highest waterfall in Eurasia.  It falls into the Talnikova River, a left tributary of the Kureika River (888 km.).  The root of the word Kureika is Kur.  See Kursk battle.  The Kureika is a major right tributary of the Yenisei River (5 540 km.) that is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.  The Kureika River falls from the Putorana Plateau.  The village of Kureika used to have a museum dedicated to Joseph Stalin, who was exiled there in 1914 — 1917.  The year 1917 is the time of Russian revolution and birth of Indira Gandhi.

VII.  Saurovo

In Sanskrit, Saura means solar, divine, worshipper of the Sun, right eye, etc.  It aligns it with the Right Eye of Horus in a Golden Sun Disc that was the symbol of Egyptian Mystery School during the reign of Echnaton (Amenhotep IV).  He was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who lived in 14th century BC.  Echnaton abandoned traditional Egyptian polytheism and introduced worship centered on Aton that was the disk of the Sun.  Echnaton praised Aten as the creator, giver of life, and nurturing spirit of the world.

Saurovo is ~70 km. east of the Kremlin (center of Moscow).  It is a village located on the Klyazma River.  The Klyazma is a tributary of the Oka River whose name has links with Indian state Gujarat.

Next to Saurovo is village called Kurovo.  The last three letters (ovo) indicate a status of settlement.  Both of them have Sanskrit roots – Saur and Kur, respectively.  The distance to the rivers Yada and Agra in Vladimir region is ~200 km.

Saura is a religion and denomination of Hinduism, originating as a Vedic tradition.  Followers of Saura worship Surya.  The Saura Purana means the Purana of sun-god Surya.  See the Russian river Sura.

Saurashtra is a peninsular region covering about a third of Gujarat state.  Surat (former Suryapur) is the economical capital of Gujarat.  It is believed to be 4th fastest growing city of the world.  Surat polishes over 90% of the world’s rough diamonds.

Saura was a Native American Indian tribe reported in various parts of South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia.  The Sauratown Mountains were named after the Sauras lived in the area before European settlers arrived in the early 1700s.  After attacks in the late 17th  century and early 18th century the Sauras became extinct as a tribe, although some descendants survived as remnant peoples.  Saura once lived at the confluence of the Pee Dee and Yadkin Rivers.

See Yada River in Vladimir region and Yoda River in Yaroslavl region.  Yadu is one of the five Indo-Aryan tribes mentioned in the Rig Veda. Krishna was a descendant of Yadu.  Yoda is more famous as the Grand Master of the Jedi Order in the Star Wars movie series.  In Sanskrit, Yoda means ‘warrior’.

The present town of Eden has grown on the Saura Indian villages.  Garden of Eden or biblical Paradise is the «garden of God».  The story of Adam and Eve is central to the belief that God created human beings in a Garden of Eden.  The distance between the Yaroslavl rivers Yoda and Edoma is less than 25 km.

Saura was a Native American Indian tribe reported in various parts of South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia.  The Sauratown Mountains were named after the Sauras lived in the area before European settlers arrived in the early 1700s.  After attacks in the late 17th  century and early 18th century the Sauras became extinct as a tribe, although some descendants survived as remnant peoples.  Saura once lived at the confluence of the Pee Dee and Yadkin Rivers.  See Yada River in Vladimir region and Yoda River in Yaroslavl region.

The present town of Eden has grown on the Saura Indian villages.  Garden of Eden or biblical Paradise is the «garden of God».  The story of Adam and Eve is central to the belief that God created human beings in a Garden of Eden.  God also placed in the garden  the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and prohibited the man from eating the fruit of this tree.  A serpent helped Eve eat fruit from the forbidden tree.  Adam took some of the fruit.  They got knowledge.

Serpent has always been the symbol of wisdom in Central America, Asia and India.  Naga is the Sanskrit word for a deity, a great and wise snake.  Nags Head is a town in Dare County, North Carolina.  It is ~380 km. from town Eden (former Saura village).  It may be just a coincidence, but only the brave dare go further.

Sauron is the Dark Lord and main antagonist of Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings.  Sauron secretly forged the One Ring that could rule them all.  In The Lord of the Rings the Earth is called the Arda.

Ardatov is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia in the Volga basin.  In Sanskrit, Arda means ‘pressing hard’.  The ending ‘tov’ refers to a settlement status.  Often it is pronounced as ‘tav’.  Read from the right to the left it is ‘vat’.  In Sanskrit, vat means ‘enclosure’.

There is Ardovat River (31 km.) that is a tributary of Kanadeika River (57 km.) in Ulyanovsk region.  Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka.  Its capital Bangalore is associated with The Roerichs and Madame Blavatsky who searched for ancient links between Russia and India.  Karnataka and Russia’s coat of arms both have two-headed birds.  The Ulyanovsk region has the biggest colony of the eagles depicted on the Russian coat of arm.  The source of the Sura River is also in the Ulyanovsk region.

One Ardatov is located in the Nizhny Novgorod region.  Another Ardatov is a town of Mordovia in the middle Volga River region of Russia.  Sauron is known as the Dark Lord of Mordor.  Mordovia also known in English as Mordvinia.  In Sanskrit, dvaina means ‘duality’ and ‘divine’.  See Russian rivers Northern Dvina and Western Dvina.  Major rivers of Mordovia include have Sanskrit roots: Moksha River, Sura River, Satis River, etc.

Mordovia’s capital is the city of Saransk.  The last letters ‘sk’ stand for a status of city.  In Sanskrit, sarana means ‘sermon’.  The Moksha people are a primary Mordvinian ethnic group.  They mostly live in the Volga and the Sura rivers regions.  The river Moksha belongs to the Volga basin.  As is said above, Moksa is a Sanskrit word (see section I).

Mordovian Ardatov is among the major towns located on the Alatyr River.  In the medieval Russian literature Alatyr is a great sacred stone.  Alatyr is associated with the altar located in the center of the world.  Altair is the brightest star in the Aquila constellation.  Aquila is Latin term for ‘eagle’ and it represents the bird that carried Zeus/Jupiter’s thunderbolts in Greco-Roman mythology.  See above about the eagles on the coat of arms of Russia and Karnataka.  Karna was the son of Surya.  The Russian river Sura starts in Ulyanovsk region.  It is the birthplace of Lenin, Russian communist revolution’s leader and the founder of the Soviet Union.

Appendix

Lenin’s Gorki

Desna is a major tributary of Pakhra River (Moskva River basin).  This Pakhra River flows near the world-known museum complex Lenin’s Gorki.  After the Soviet government moved from Saint-Petersburg to Moscow in 1918, the luxurious estate Gorki was nationalized for Lenin.  He was spending an increasing amount of time in the Gorki as his health declined after an assassination attempt.  He permanently lived and worked there in semi-retirement from 1923 to 1924.   After Lenin’s death, Gorki was renamed «Gorki Leninskiye» (meaning «Lenin’s Gorki»).

The monument called «The Death of the Leader» was unveiled in the Lenin’s Gorki park in 1958.  Its uniqueness is that Lenin here is depicted like the Dalai Lama.  His right arm and shoulder are naked.  See for Moscow region’s river called Lama (Section VI).

Buddhism (born in India) and Communism (born Europe) share the common ideas.  In the past some people even believed that Lenin was a reincarnation of the Buddha.   In 1926 the Roerichs brought to Moscow a famous letter from the Mahatmas to the Soviet government.  In addition to the letter, they sent a box with sacred earth to Lenin’s grave.  The Masters of the Ancient Wisdom called Lenin as their brother and recognized him as a Mahatma.  It is a Sanskrit word for ‘Great Soul’.

Stalin became the Soviet leader after Lenin’s passing away.  Initially, the above mentioned monument «The Death of the Leader» was a gift to Stalin’s 70th birthday celebrated in 1948.  The author and sculptor was Sergey Merkurov, a prominent Soviet sculptor-monumentalist.  He was the sculptor of the three biggest monuments of Stalin in the Soviet Union.  Merkurov was a cousin of George Gurdjieff, an influential early 20th century mystic, philosopher and spiritual teacher.  Gurdjieff taught to achieve full human potential.  Stalin and Gurdjieff used to study in the same theological seminary.  It is believed that Gurdjieff persuaded Stalin to change the year of his birth in order to become Russia’s ruler.

Before the revolution, the estate of Gorki belonged to various Muscovite noblemen from the 18th century.  Zinaida Morozova, the widow of Savva Morozov, purchased Gorki in 1909.  Her first husband Savva Morozov (died in 1905) was a Russian textiles magnate and philanthropist.  Many Indian now large companies would start from textile.  The Morozov family was the fifth richest in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century.  Remarkable are the name and surname of Savva Morozov.  Sava is a Hindu masculine given name.  Originally, Sava is a Sanskrit word with many meanings such as ‘kind of sacrifice’, ‘commander’, etc.  Surname Morozov is derived from the term Moroz, i.e. frost and prohlada.  Sanskrit verb ‘prahladate’ means ‘be refreshed’ and is equal to the Russian verb ‘prahladit’.  See Prahlada in Russia.

The Moskva River takes not only the above mentioned Pakhra River, but also the Pehorka River whose root (‘Pehor’) correlates to the name of Pehowa, one of the oldest and most sacred places in the Kurukshetra region (India).