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Prahlada in Russia

Prahlada is the Sanskrit name of a great devotee of Vishnu and the most powerful king of the Asuras.  See village Osurovo in Yaroslavl region of Russia.  This settlement is located 160 km. from Moscow whose region itself has many Sanskrit names.  See Sanskrit names in Moscow region.

Prahlada is a typical Russian word meaning cool, cold, etc.  Such weather stays in Russia most of the time, particularly in Siberia and the Urals.

As it is said above, Prahlada was devoted towards Hindu god Vishnu.  In the Urals there is Vishera River.  Vishera River is a major tribute of Kama River and one of the most beautiful rivers of the Urals The distance between the source of Vishera River and the mount Narodnaya / river Narada is about 400 km.  See Narada and the Urals.

In his mother’s womb, Prahlada began to learn from Narada.  He was taught by Narada in early childhood and developed an intense love for Vishnu.  Narada gave spiritual initiation to Prahlada.  Later Prahlada became the mighty king of the Asuras beloved and respected by his subjects.  He was able to fight against the gods such as Indra, Shiva as well as Nara-Narayana and Ravana, etc.  See Russian rivers Indrus, Siva, Nara, Ravan.

Prahlada’s clan was the children of an earth goddess Diti and the sage Kashyapa.  Among the notable members of this clan was Holika, aunt of Prahlada.  She was daughter of Kashyapa and Diti and had a special boon that fire could not harm her.  As a young boy Prahlada was tricked to sit on her lap on a bonfire.  Prahlada prayed.  Eventually, Holika was burnt to death, while Prahlada was kept safe from the flames and came out unharmed.  Her death signifies the triumph of good over evil.  This story is celebrated in the main Hindu festival of Holi.

Holi is the Hindu spring festival that has a sticking similarity with Russian festival Maslenitsa, also known as Butter Week.  It is one of the oldest surviving Slavic carnivals, celebrating of the imminent end of the winter.  The last day is called Sunday of Forgiveness.  Relatives and friends ask each other for forgiveness.  As the culmination of the celebration people gather to burn Lady Maslenitsa in a bonfire.

Prahlada was saved by Narasimha, the fourth avatar of Vishnu, who incarnated in the form of part lion and part man.  In Sanskrit, ‘nar’ means Man and ‘simaha’ is lion.  Such half man and half lion is depicted on the coat of arm of Russian city Vladimir.  Vladimir region has number of rivers with Sanskrit names, for instance, Agra, Tara, Yada, Vamanka, etc.  As a matter of fact, Vamana was the fifth avatar of Vishnu.  Vamana incarnated as a dwarf who defeated the powerful king Bali who was Prahlada’s grandson.

 

Narada and the Urals

Narada is the Vedic sage who carries enlightening wisdom and travels to distant worlds and realms of the Universe.  Narada is considered the greatest of sages.  According to the Indian epic, Narada lived in the north.

The highest point of the Ural Mountains is the Mount Narodnaya also known as Naroda and Narada.  Its name is associated with Narada (Naroda) River at the foothills and the above mentioned sage Narada from early Hindu texts.

Mount Narodnaya (Narada) is located in the region called Yugra.  The region has great economic importance.  The majority (>51%) of the oil produced in Russia comes from Yugra.  See about the Russian rivers Ugra and Siva.  The major Yugra’s oil producing cities are located on the same meridian with major Indian cities.

The Urals run from the Arctic Ocean to Central Asia (northwestern Kazakhstan).  The mountain range forms part of the conventional boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia.  The Urals still have one time zone with India.

Name Narada often is literally translated from Sanskrit as ‘the lowest of people’ (nara — man, da-inferior).  But it could not be true taken his high status.  Narada was son and disciple of Brahma (the creator god in the Trimurti of Hinduism).  On the other hand, the source of a river is called the upper stream, the whereas mouth of a river is referred to as the downstream.  Mount Narodnaya (Narada) is 400 km. from the Arctic Ocean.  The total length of the Urals exceeds 2500 km.

In the Southern Ural steppe there is archaeological site Arkaim that was a very important center of the Aryans (their self-designation meaning ‘noble’) or Indo-Iranian people (modern linguistic name) who later moved to India and Iran to form there the Vedic and Avestan cultures.  That is why Vedic Sanskrit and Gathic Avestan are remarkably similar, descended from the common Aryan (Proto–Indo-Iranian, Proto-Indo-European) language.

Russian, Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Bengali, Punjabi, German, French, Marathi, Spanish, English, etc. are the daughter languages of that ancient common language.  It is the most widely spoken language family in the world.  Aryavarta (Sanskrit, lit. ‘abode of the excellent ones’, i.e. the Aryans) is the region where the historic Aryans used to live.  Scholars point out that, even in ancient times, the idea of being an ‘Aryan’ was religious, cultural and linguistic, not racial.

In Avestan cosmogony, Hara Berezaiti is the legendary mountain surrounded by the steppes of the Airyanem Vaejah (the homeland of the early Iranians, i.e. Aryans).  See villages Harino and Berezovka in the Northern Range of Vologda region.

Narada & Valmiki

The youthful sage Narada summarizes the Ramayana to Valmiki.  Narada tells him in brief the story of prince Rama, his wife Sita and the king of Lanka Ravana (Rakshasa).  See about Russian rivers Ra (Volga), Sit and Ravan.

Narada & Vyasa

Narada is the teacher of Vyasa who is generally considered the author of the Mahabharata and the scribe of both the Vedas and Puranas.  Vyasa was the ancestor of two warring clans in the Mahabharata — the Kauravas and the Pandavas.  See Kursk battle.

It is believed that Vyasa was born in Kalpi located on the bank of the Yamuna River.  Kalpi is said to have been founded by King Vasudeva.  The witty Birbal of Akbar’s The Great court is considered to be born near this city.  Kolpino is a part of Saint Petersburg.  Kolpino is located on the Izhora River (a tributary of Neva River).  Kolpino is believed to be descended from an old Russian word for a swan.  In Russian and Hindu traditions, swan is also a symbolism for spiritual perfection.  The last two letters (‘no’) in the name Kolpino indicate the city status and are added to the ancient root ‘Kolpi‘ that is alike to Kalpi.

Narada & Prahlada

Narada gave spiritual initiation to Prahlada.  He was taught by Narada in early childhood.  Prahlada got to hear Narada’s chants while being in his mother’s womb.  See Prahlada in Russia.

 

 

 

Odin & Scanda

Context:

  1. Odintsovo
  2. Odin
  3. Skanda
  4. Swat

 

I. Odintsovo

The Moskva River with its tributaries flow through the Odintsovo district of Moscow region.  The coat of arms of Odintsovo shows a white deer, representing cleanliness and purity. The deer lies facing the west, although gazes to the east.  It is the destiny of Russia to harmoniously unite the East (The Spirit) and the West (The Matter).

Odintsovo has been known from at least 14th century, but there is no clear idea about the origin of the name Odintsovo.  Surely, it could be related to Odin.  The last letters (‘tsovo’) indicate only a status of settlement.  In Russian, odin literally means one.  The One Supreme Being, the creator and ruler of the Universe.

II. Odin

In Germanic mythology, Odin is a widely respected god.  He is associated with healing, knowledge, battle, sorcery, poetry, the runic alphabet, etc.  In order to gain wisdom, Odin sacrificed one of his eyes at the spring of Mimir which was the source of all knowledge.  See Kashmir.  This aligns with the ancient Egyptian mythos about the Eye of Horus and the Eye of Ra.  The All-Seeing Eye is one of the oldest depictions of the Deity.

Most of the information about Odin stems from the Norse mythology or the Scandinavian folklore.  Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia.  It is believed that this term comes from the Swedish (former Danish) region Scania.  There is no clear hypothesis regarding the origin of the name Scania.  The version with Germanic root is weak.  Indeed, Odin is a prominently mentioned god throughout the recorded history of the Germanic peoples that are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.  They are known for their former habit to war.

III.  Scandinavia and Skanda  

Skanda is the Hindu god of war, the son of Parvati and Siva.  See for rivers Siva in Russia.  In Buddhism, Scanda was the son of a virtuous Buddhist king.  The Buddha instructed Skanda to guard the Dharma and the Buddhist teachings.  Skanda is a Bodhisattva.  It is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has achieved Enlightenment or Buddhahood, but has vowed to return to the samsara world to aid all sentient beings on their paths to Buddhahood.  Tara is a female Bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism.  See Tara River in Vladimir region.

In Sanskrit, the name Skanda has many meanings including, king, cleaver or learned man, attacker, etc.  Skanda is a forceful attacker in war against devil beings, but his name also signifies one who has accumulated the power of chastity.  He is known as the defender of all Sadhus (holy persons in Hinduism).  Skanda is also known as Sanat Kumara.  In Sanskrit, it is ‘Eternal Youth’ (from Sanat ‘eternal’, Ku ‘with difficulty’ and Mara ‘mortal’).  Oldest but always young Kumara, the Lord of Shambala and the Pleiadian Head Master, is the one leads towards Brahman, the Highest God.  Sanat Kumara is one of the Four Kumaras who are the first mind-born creations and sons of the creator-god Brahma.  In the Theosophical publications Sanat Kumara is an Ascended Master of Light.

In spiritual icons Sanat Kumara is shown as an ever-youthful man, riding or near a peacock.  Is it not only the national bird of India, but also a symbol of Russian city Serpukhov where the above mentioned Nara River meets the Oka River.

When looked from such angle, Scandinavia = Skanda + Navi.

Navi has several meanings worldwide.  On one hand it is a Hindi originated name, meaning ‘New’.  It fully correlates to the same Russian word.  If read from the right to the left, Navi becomes Ivan that is the most popular Russia name in the world.  Navi refers to the prophet in the Hebrew Bible and is similar in meaning to the Arabic word ‘nabi’.  Naʼvi is a humanoid alien race in the movie Avatar.  See village Navi in the Tver region (Russia).

The Mahabharata and other scriptures say that Sanat Kumara helps the Divine Plan of Creation.  He was Pradyumna, Krishna’s son.  Together they defeated a strong and ferocious demon named Nikumbha who abducted a Yadava princess, the granddaughter of Krishna.  See Yada River in Vladimir region.  Nikumbha is the son of Kumbhakarna (Sanskrit, lit. pot-eared) who is the younger brother of Ravana the main antagonist of the epic Ramayana.

Ravana is a Sanskrit word that means ‘roaring’.  Ravan is also the name of a river in the Leningrad region.  The river Ravan is located ~100 km. south-east from the center of Saint-Petersburg.  The Leningrad region is called after Lenin born in the present day Ulyanovsk region where river Sura (Surya) has its source.  Ravana is considered to be the most revered devotee of Siva.  See Russian rivers Siva.

Kumbha is the Sanskrit term for a water pot.  Also, it is sign of the zodiac Aquarius that is a symbol of Russia and Veliky Ustyug.  Moreover, Kumba is a mount of the Urals and the South African iron-ore company.  Kumba Iron Ore is the fourth largest iron-ore producer in the world and the largest in Africa.  Major Russian iron ore and metallurgical companies are based in the Urals having the rich natural deposits.

Mount Kumba is located ~550 km. south of the river and mount Naroda that is the highest peak of the Urals.  In Sanskrit, Kumba is enclosure round a place of sacrifice, thick end.  Golden Stone mount is next to the Kumba.  In Sanskrit, gold is kumbha.

 

IV. Swat

Swatovo is a village in the Odintsovo district of Moscow region.  Swatovo is located:

~30 km. north-west from Odintsovo

>30 km. north from the source of the Desna River (west)

~33 km. east-north from the source of the Nara River

~47 km. west of the Kremlin (center of Moscow)

~10 km. north from Savvino-Storozhevsky monastery named after St. Savva (14th century).  In Sanskrit, Sava means ‘commander’, whereas sattva means ‘essence’.

In the name Swatovo the root is Swat, whereas ending ‘ovo’ means a status of settlement.  There are the Swat River and Swat District in the northern Pakistan, near Kashmir.  In Sanskrit, Swat means ‘to beat off, as insects; to bat, strike, or hit’.

 

Uddyana & Udina

Swat valley area is considered as a possible location of Uddyana.  It is a legendary Buddhist country that existed in the second half of the 1st millennium AD in Northern India.  In some Tibetan traditions, Uddyana is identified with Shambhala.  See below Solombala, an island on the Northen Dvina River near its exit into the White Sea.  It is believed that the 8th-century Indian Buddhist master Padmasambhava (lit. ‘Lotus-Born’) was born in Uddyana.  He is widely recognized as a ‘second Buddha’ across Tibet, Nepal and the Himalayan states of India.

Ujjain is one of the sacred sites of the Buddhists and the Hindus, center of Hinduism and Sanskrit learning.  Initially, the ancient Ujjain was located around the Kalika hill (see below Kalka & Kalika).  Also, see Ujjain & Ashoka.

Udine is a city and commune in northeastern Italy.

Udina is the name of two Russian rivers: one belongs to the Volga basin and the Caspian Sea, the other belongs to the Baltic Sea basin.

Udina is a village located in the Datia district of Madhya-Pradesh.  Datia is an ancient town mentioned in the Mahabharata as Daityavakra.  In Hinduism, the Daityas are a clan or race of Asura, the children of Diti and the sage Kashyapa.  See Russian village Osurovo in the Yaroslavl region.  Among the notable daityas are Prahlada and Holika.  See Prahlada in Russia.

Udina is ~340 km. south of Delhi and ~200 km. from Lucknow.  See Russian village Delhi in the Tver region and the settlement Lucknovo in the Vladimir region.

The road from Delhi to Udina comes through Mathura and Agra.  Mathura was homeland and birthplace of Krishna who was born in Yadu dynasty.  See Russian river Yada in the Vladimir region.  Kashipur village is less than 2 km. from Udina.  See Kashmir.

Udina is a volcanic massif located in the central part of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Udina is located in the Klyuchevskaya group of volcanoes.  Here is the Klyuchevskaya Sopka that is the highest active volcano of Eurasia.  Another Sopka of this group is the large volcanic massif called Ushkovsky.  Ushu is a tributary of the above mentioned Swat River in Pakistan.  See above Russian village Swatovo.  The name Ushkovsky correlates to the Russian name ushko that is ear.  In Sanskrit, ear is karna.  In a broader sense, it means capable of widely perceiving what is happening, not missing anything.

In Russian mythology Karna is the goddess of birth, incarnation and rebirth, the reflection of the cycle of the Universe.  Karna is the mother of the gods and all living things.  The goddess Karna is also present in the ancient Roman pantheon. The Romans revered Karna as the goddess of the human body.

Karna is the name of several Russian settlements, rivers and lakes.  Between the Karna lake and city of Bryansk (located on the Desna River) there are settlements Sweet Buda, Full Buda and Lookout Buda. Budha is a deity in Puranic mythology.  It is the name of the founder of Buddhism.  In Sanskrit, budha means ‘wise, learned man, awaking’.

Karna is one of the central characters of Mahabharata.  He was the son of sun god Surya, born to Kunti (the daughter of a human king) before her marriage with Pandu, the earthly father of the Pandavas.  It is believed that Karna founded the city of Karnal in present Indian state Haryana in North India.  The capital of this state is Chandigarh.  Sukhna Lake is among its notable sites.

 

Sukhna & Sukhona

Sukhna Lake (India) is located in Chandigarh near the foothills of Sivalik Hills (the Himalayas).  See Russian rivers Siva.  Sukhna Lake is artificial created by Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal stream coming down from the Sivalik Hills.  Le Corbusier prepared the master plan for the city of Chandigarh after invitation from India’s first Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru.  Chandigarh is located ~260 km. north of Delhi.  See village Delhi in Tver region of Russia.  Sukhna is a sanctuary for the Siberian duck, storks and cranes, during the winter months.

Sukhona River (Russia) is largest and longest river in the Vologda region of the Russian North.  Its length is ~560 km.  Rivers Sukhona and Yug form the Northern Dvina River near the town Veliky Ustyug that used to be the gateway to Siberia.  All these three Russian rivers have Sanskrit names and, therefore, deep links with India.  See Kur island of the Northern Dvina River and Navlakhi Port in GujaratPur Navolok (nowadays city Arkhangelsk) lies on both banks of the Northern Dvina River near its exit into the White Sea of the Arctic Ocean.  In Russia it is often associated with the Ocean of milk in Hindu cosmology.  The devas and asuras worked together for a millennium to churn the ocean and release Amrita (the nectar of immortal life).  See village Osurovo in Yaroslavl region of Russia.

The first documentated settlers (XII century) of Veliky Ustyug were the citizens of Rostov Veliky (Yaroslavl region) located on the shore of the lake Nero comparable in meaning and pronunciation to the above mentioned surname of Indian Prime Minister Nehru.

Veliky Ustyug and Russian capital Moscow have the same year of foundation (1147).  In the center of Moscow in 2015 was unveiled a monument to Le Corbusier, next to his building (Centrosoyuz, 1933) that is one of the favorite spots for architectural walking tours, along with the famous Stalin skyscrapers.

Centrosoyuz building constructed by Le Corbusier and Nikolai Kolli was the headquarters of the Central Union of Consumer Cooperatives.  It is the only building of Le Corbusier in Moscow, but very symbolic indeed.  Cooperatives represent a kind of future world community described in the works of many philosophers including the Roerichs stated that knowledge and beauty are the real cornerstones of evolution, the gates to a world community.  Chandigarh’s logo is «The City Beautiful».  Not by chance Chandigarh was Nehru’s dream city.  Le Corbusier had a strong belief in the ability of architecture to create a sacred and spiritual environment.

A recurring motif in Le Corbusier’s architecture was The Open Hand.  It is a sign of peace and reconciliation.  It is open to give and open to receive.  The largest of the many Open Hand sculptures that Le Corbusier created is in Chandigarh (26 meter high).  Upon the architect’s death in 1965, United States President Lyndon Johnson said, «His influence was universal and his works are invested with a permanent quality possessed by those of very few artists in our history».  The Soviet Union added, «Modern architecture has lost its greatest master».

Chandigarh’s name is liked with the goddess Chandi.  She is said to be one of the most spectacular of all personifications of Cosmic energy.

Chandigarh or Chandi-ka-Garh, literally means the fortress of goddess ‘Chandi’.  The hill fortress overlooks her ancient temple at Chandi-Kotla (~7 km. east of Chandigarh).  See Russian town Kotlas at the confluence of the Northern Dvina and Vychegda Rivers in Archangelsk (Pur Navolok) region.

Chandi cannot tolerate evil acts and slays evil doers without mercy.  It is believed that Chandi (Durga) killed Mahisasura at this spot over 5000 years ago.  Mahisasura was an asura (demon) and intended to extinguish all the Devas (gods) since they were the main enemies of Asuras.  See village Osurovo in Yaroslavl region (Russia).

The legend is important in Hindu mythology because the goddess Durga was incarnated in order to slay Mahisasura.  It is claimed that the first President of India Rajendra Prasad visited the temple in 1953 and was impressed with the ancient past of the temple.  He named after it the local police station, railway station and the adjoining village (Chandimandir).  Later the city was titled Chandigarh.

The Yadavindra Gardens at Pinjore (~7 km. north of  Chandi-Kotla) are believed to be built by Mughals.  See Russian Yada River in Vladimir region that has a special connection to the ancestor of the Mughals.  His name Tamerlan is said to have meaning ‘the one who knows Merlin’ (the legendary wizard from Arthurian legend).  Tamerlan’s personal seal was the same as the symbol of the Shambhala (see below).

Kalka is ~5 km. north of Pinjore and its Asia’s best 17th century Mughal garden.

Kalka & Kalika

Kalka is a town near Chandigarh in the foothills of the Himalayas.  Kalka is ~15 km. north-east of the above mentioned lake Sukhna.  The name of this town is derived from the goddess Kali.  There is no clear idea about the etymology of the most populous state in the United States.  There must be an ancient link of Kalifornia to Kali.

In the 19th century north of the contemporary state California and whole Alaska were part of the Russian America founded by the people connected to the above mentioned Russian town Veliky Ustyug located on the banks of the Sukhona River.

Kalka River is famous in Russian history for a battle fought in 1223 on its banks between a coalition of several Russian principalities and the Mongol Empire.  In the same present-day Donetsk region is the Saur Grave.  See Saurovo in the Moscow and Tver regions.  Another battle of the Russian troops with Mongolian army took place in 1238 on the banks of the river Sit (modern Yaroslavl region of Russia).  Sita is a Sanskrit word meaning white, light, bright, etc.  Kalka is also a Sanskrit word meaning sin, filth, etc.  The name ‘Kalki’ could mean ‘destroyer of the filth’.

In Hinduism, Kalki is the final incarnation of Vishnu who will lead in a new Golden Age (Satya Yuga).  This Epoch is now often associated with the Age of Aquarius.   Aquarius (Kumbha in Snaskrit) is depicted on the coat of arms of the Russian town Veliky Ustyug where the above mentioned rivers Sukhona and Yug form the Northern Dvina River floating to the White Sea (Arctic ocean).  Kalki is foretold to appear at the end of Kali Yuga that is believed to have finished after the Kursk Battle.

In Tibetan Buddhism, the rulers of the mystical Shambhala Kingdom hold the title of Kalki, Kulika or Kalki-king.  In Sanskrit, Shambhala (also spelled Shambala) is SambhalaSolombala is an island on the Northern Dvina River and a historic part of Pur Navolok (Arkhangelsk).  Kuliga (see above Kulika) is the name of Russian village where the Kama River begins.

Kalikanagar is a village in the Indian state Gujarat.  Around the Garh Kalika hill on the bank of river Kshipra was located the ancient Ujjain (see above).  According to Mahabharata and other Puranas (Skanda Purana) it came into existence some 3000 years ago.  Today it is Ujjain city in Madhya Pradesh state of central India.  Once every 12 years, the Kumbh Mela fair takes place on the city’s riverside ghats.  The Kshipra (Shipra) River is one of the sacred rivers in Hinduism.  According to Hindu mythology, Ujjain is one of four places where Vishnu dropped drops of Amrita (the drink of immortality) while transporting it in a kumbha (pot).

Kalikino is a village on the above mentioned Sukhona River near town Veliky Ustyug whose symbol is Aquarius with two pots or kumbha (Sanskrit).

 

Appendix

Ujjain & Ashoka

Ujjain is located in the center of India.  In the past it was the capital of Avanti Kingdom described in Mahabharata.  Ashoka (268 — 232 BC) started his rule as the Governor of Avanti at the age of 18.  It was the first territory he ruled.  Under Ashoka the Mauryan Empire reached its full power and became the largest empire ever in the Indian subcontinent and one of the world’s largest empires at that time.  Ashoka is internationally recognized as one of the preeminent rulers in the human history.  He spread Buddhism in India and other counties.

Ashoka was a grandson of Chandragupta Maurya (340 — 298 BC) who was the founder of the Maurya Dynasty.  Mayura is peacock in Sanskrit.  It is the national bird of India and symbol of Russian city Serpukhov located on the banks of the Nara River.  Peacock’s open tail symbolizes the Heaven and a higher state of consciousness.  Indeed the Maurya Dynasty ruled almost the entire Indian subcontinent from in the third century BC and was unique in many aspects from the very beginning.

The first Mauryan ruler Chandragupta Maurya was a fugitive in the camp of Alexander the Great who was fighting his way into India.  After the death of Alexander in Babylon, Chandragupta managed to unify India for the first time in history.  Interestingly enough, but the name Babylon has the same meaning as the holy Hindu city Haridwar.  It is the gate of god(s).  Chandragupta Maurya   built one of the largest empires ever in the Indian subcontinent, but in the end of life he left his capital and performed the Jain religious ritual of peacefully welcoming death by fasting.  This event supposedly took place ~150 km. from Bangalore.

Ashoka is a Sanskrit word literally meaning ‘sorrow-less’ or ‘without sorrow’.  It is said that Ashoka was labeled as Ashoka the Terrible.  Such title still have Ivan the Terrible, the most famous and beloved Russian ruler (16th century).  Ivan loved India and played the chess until the very moment of his death.  In Sanskrit, the Terrible is Urga.  It is one of Siva’s names.  See Russian rivers Siva and Ugra.

Despite his military and political success Chandragupta Maurya failed to annex the small independent feudal kingdom of Kalinga (roughly present state Orissa) in central-eastern India, on the Bay of Bengal.  It would be completed in 260 BC by his grandson Ashoka.  After the bloody conquest of Kalinga, Ashoka realized the magnitude of horror associated with war and converted to Buddhism.

It is presumed that the Kalinga War was fought in the area of Dhauli hills located ~8 km. south of Bhubaneswar.  A white peace pagoda was built on the top of the hill in the 1970s.  At the same a monument of Lenin was erected in Russian historical town Aleksandrov that was the capital of the country in the 16th century under the rule of the above mentioned Ivan the Terrible.  Aleksandrov is ~100 km. north-east of Moscow.  Today, Aleksandrov is a part of Vladimir region that has ancient ties with India.  There are certain resembles between the hand gestures of Lenin in Aleksandrov (right) and Buddha in the Dhauli peace pagoda (left).  Equally, the basic ideas of Communism (world community) and Buddhism have much in common.  It is known that The Masters of the Ancient Wisdom have named Lenin as a Mahatma.

 

Ashoka made Dhauli an important centre of Buddhist activities.  One of the most complete edicts of Ashoka is here engraved on a mass of rock.  He expresses his concern for the welfare of the whole world.  Ashoka did not attack any kingdom but proceeded on a mission of peace.  Ashoka sent missions abroad to preach Buddhism, erected pillars and stupas (domed structures that house relics of the Buddha) throughout Indian subcontinent, encouraging people to give up violence and live in harmony with each other and with nature.

The famous Great Stupa in Sanchi was originally commissioned by Ashoka in the 3rd century BC.  Today, it is one of the oldest stone structures in India.  Sanchi is significant for Buddhist around the world.  The stupa is located ~200 km east of Ujjain.

Ashoka pillar capital of Sarnath has become the State Emblem of India.  Sarnath is located north-east of Varanasi (ancient Kasi) near the confluence of the Ganges and the Varuna rivers.  Sarnath is the place where Buddha delivered his first teaching and Buddhist community was born.

The name Kalinga is thought to have come from the Kalingas who have been mentioned as a major tribe in the Hindu epic Mahabharata.  Its major character and the chief antagonist is Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas.  Kuru king Duryodhana’s wife was from Kalinga and the Kalingas sided with him in the Kurukshetra War.  Duryodhana’s closest friend is the above mentioned Karna.

Kaliningrad (lit. Kalinpur) was the previous name of modern Korolev where the Soviet Union and the whole humanity made the first step into Cosmos in 1961.  Russian city Kaluga is named «The Cradle of Space Exploration».  Kalika hill is the initial place of the ancient Ujjain.  See above Kalka & Kalika.

Kuru & Kursk battlefields

Kurukshetra is translated from Sanskrit as ‘field of the Kurus’.  Kuru was the name of a Vedic Indo-Aryan tribal union and the founder of the Kuru dynasty.  Kuru was a descendant of the legendary emperor Bharata.  Today Bharata is an official name of the Republic of India.

Other than these Kurus of India, there was another kingdom called Uttara Kurus to the north of Himalayas.  See Uttara Kurus in Russia.

The Kurukshetra War described in the great Indian epic Mahabharata was the conflict evolved from a dynastic succession struggle between two groups of cousins, the Kauravas and the Pandavas, for the throne of kingdom called Kuru.  All were the descendants of the above mentioned legendary king Kuru.  Kurukshetra was also known as the ‘field of Dharma’ or field of righteousness.  The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit: ‘Song of the Lord’) was preached by Krishna before this war started.  It is one of the most respected religious and philosophical texts in the Hindu religion.

The Battle of Kursk was the pivotal encounter of the Second World War.  It took place during July and August 1943 near Kursk, 450 km. south-west of Moscow and led to the largest armoured clash in the history of humankind.

The correlation in the history of the battles on the Kuru field and on the Kursk field:

  • The two greatest battles in human history — the Battle of Kuru filed (3102 BC) and the Battle of Kursk (1943) ended on the same day — August 23, and began with a difference of one month.

The Battle of the Kuru field (Kurukshetra) began on August 5, 3102 BC. On August 5, 1943, the Soviet troops liberated Russian cities Belgorod and Orel.  The first salute in the history of the Soviet Union was dedicated to this significant event.  Literally, Belgorod means White City or Heavenly Jerusalem.  Orel is the Russian name of eagle that is ‘king of the skies’, messenger of the highest gods, symbol of power and immortality (higher consciousness).

Orel (eagle) is the root of surname Orlov.  The Orlov Diamond is the largest and most famous of the seven historical precious stones in the collection of the Diamond Fund of the Moscow Kremlin.  It was bought in 18th century in Amsterdam by Count Orlov for his passion Catherine the Great of Russia.  The Orlov Diamond is believed to be the Great Mogul Diamond gifted to Shah Jahan in the middle of 17th century.  The Orlov Diamond retains its original Indian rose-style cut. The Orlov Diamond adorns the Imperial scepter of the Russian Empress Catherine the Great.  None of the European monarchs had a diamond of this size.

Another version states that the Great Mogul Diamond was the stone from which the Koh-i-noor was cut.  The name Koh-i-noor is derived from the Persian language which means ‘Mountain of Light’.  It is said that the Koh-i-noor was mounted on the Peacock Throne of the Mughal Emperors of India.  In the middle of 19th century the Koh-i-noor was given to Queen Victoria after the British conquest of the Punjab.  Today, the Koh-i-noor is the largest diamond set in the Queen Mother’s Crown that is a part of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom.  India wants it back as it is part of the glorious national heritage.

It is believed in India that soon after the battle of Kuruksetra (Kuru field), the Kali Yuga or darkest age began.  After it should come the Satya Yuga or the Golden Age often associated with the Age of Aquarius.

There is information that on the day of the end of Battle of Kurks (August 23, 1943) ten brahmanas of the highest stage of initiation came to Nicholas Roerich, who lived and worked with his family in India at that time.  They said that on this day Kali Yuga ended and started Satya Yuga, the time of the domination of the Cosmic Law.

On the northern part of the Kursk Arc (or field), in the Orel region, there is the source of the Russian river Oka.  See Oka & Gujarat.  The Oka River is a tributary of the Volga River.  In the basins of the Oka and Volga rivers there are many smaller rivers that have the same name as the holy rivers described in the Mahabharata.

In the ‘Book of the Forest’ that is one of the longest books of Mahabharata, sage Narada visits the Pandava brothers and provides a list of holy sites and places that they are recommended to visit.  See Narada in the Urals.

Pehowa is one of the oldest and most sacred places of the Kurukshetra region in the Indian state of Haryana.  Indian name Pehowa correlates to the Russian name Pehorka (Pehora).

 

 

 

Sanskrit names in Moscow region

Context:

  1. Moskva River
  2. Yamuga River
  3. Desna (east of Moscow)
  4. Desna (west of Moscow)
  5. Nara River
  6. Lama River
  7. Saurovo

 

I. Moskva River

Moskva is the Russian name of Moscow.  Moska is a Sanskrit word referring to freedom from ignorance, self-realization and self-knowledge.  It is liberation from samsara (see Russian city Samara), the cycle of death and rebirth or reincarnation and all of the suffering and limitation of worldly existence. It is a state of absolute freedom, peace and bliss, attained through Self-Realization. This is the supreme goal of human endeavor.  The concept of moksha is found in Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism.

City Moskva (Moscow) is located on the banks of Moskva River.  Not by chance that it is the capital of the biggest country in the world.  America’s greatest psychic Edgar Cayce said «Russia will become beacons of hope for the world».  It was known to the Indian sages long time ago.

 

II. Yamuga River

The source of River Yamuga is about 90 km. from the Kremlin.  The river crosses twice the federal highway M-10 that connects Moscow and Saint-Petersburg.  Everyone can see the ancient name in Russian and English.  Near the source of river Yamuga there is the famous factory of Christmas-tree toys.  The main Russian Christmas tree in Kremlin is decorated only with these toys.

Mouth of the river Yamuga is north of town Klin located near the border of Moscow and Tver regions.  The biggest enterprise in Klin is the brewery belonging to the Sun Brewing, which is majority-owned by an Indian conglomerate.  In Russian, beer is called pivo.  In Sanskrit, piva means ‘water’.

The Yamuga River flows into the Sestra River.  In Russian, Sestra means ‘sister’.  There are no logical explanations of such name’s origin.  Taken into account the listed facts, it might have been a modern Russian version of Sanskrit word Ksetra that means field, area, etc.  See Kuruksetra.

Klin is home town of Tchaikovsky (see Section V) — the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, bolstered by his appearances as a guest conductor in Europe and the United States.  His surname comes from the Russian and Indian word ‘chai‘ (i.e. tea).

 

III.  Desna (east of Moscow)

There are two rivers with the name Desna in the Moscow region.  Desna is a Sanskrit word meaning gift, offering.  It is a feminine name in India.  Siva and Vishnu sometimes have names Desna.

Desna River (Guslitsa basin) is located to the east of Moscow (Orekhovo-Zuyevsky district of Moscow region).  The distance to center of Moscow is ~90 km.  The length of this Desna River is 25 km.

IV. Desna (west of Moscow)

Desna River (Pakhra basin) starts in Naro-Fominsk district of Moscow Region.  The distance to the center of Moscow is ~50 km. (west).  The source of this Desna River is near town Aprelevka named after the nearby Aprelevka or April River.

April month of the Gregorian calendar is the second month of the Persian calendar and is called Saur.  See for Saurovo (Section VII).  Persian traditions are present in the magnificent Taj Mahal.

Desna flows south of Moscow to the east, pours into Pakhra River near estate Dubrovitsy.  The length of Desna is 88 km.  Christian Church of the Sign is located on the confluence of Desna and Pakhra Rivers.  The church is famous for its unique architecture and its mysterious history.  It is the only Russian church that is topped with a crown.  The church was consecrated in 1704, a year after the founding of new Russian capital St. Petersburg.

See Lenin’s Gorki located near the above mentioned Pakhra River.

 

V. Nara

The Nara River ~70 km. southwest from Moscow.  Its length is ~170 km.    In the winter the Nara stays under the ice until April.  April is Saur (see above).  The Nara River starts in the Poletskoye Lake and flows through the Nara ponds.  The distance between the lake and the ponds is ~1,5 km.  Between them there is village Naro-Osanovo that is a part of Odintsovsky District (Moscow region).  See Odin & Scanda.

Nara is a Sanskrit word with many meanings, including: man, hero, etc.  It might be stated that Osanovo clearly comes from another Sanskrit word.  Asana in Sanskrit does appear in many contexts denoting a static physical position.  It is traditionally used in the practice of yoga.

The ultimate goal of Yoga is moksha (liberation), pronounced in Sanskrit as Moska.  See Moskva River above and Moksha River in the Central Russia.  Description of an early form of yoga called nirodhayoga (yoga of cessation) is contained in the Mokshadharma section of Mahabharata. The Bhagavad Gita (‘Song of the Lord’) uses the term ‘yoga’ extensively in a variety of ways.  It was revealed at Kurukshetra.  See Kursk battle.

The holy Hindu Mahabharata defines the purpose of yoga as the experience of uniting the individual Atman with the universal Brahman that pervades all things.  Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the Universe and final cause of all that exists.  Atman is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.  See Atman & Ataman.

Serpukhov is located on the Nara River, 100 km. south of Moscow.  Near Serpukhov the Nara River flows into Oka River.  See Oka & Gujarat.  Peacock has been depicted on the Serpukhov’s cost of arm since 18th century.

Peacock is the national bird of India.  In Sanskrit, peacock is mayura.  Mayura is the root of several settlements in Yaroslavl and Vologda regions.  Peacock’s open tail symbolizes the Heaven and a higher state of consciousness.

The Peacock Throne was a symbol and the seat of the Mughal emperors of India in the Red Fort of Delhi.  See Delhi village in the Tver region.  Red is traditional and most beloved Russian color.  The Peacock Throne was commissioned in the early 17th century by Emperor Shah Jahan who is considered one of the greatest Mughals.  His vast Mughal Empire covered almost the entire Indian subcontinent.  He built the world famous Taj Mahal.

Mystical king Ludwig II of Bavaria (1845 – 1886) installed a romanticised version of the Peacock throne in his Linderhof Palace.  This ruler is often called the Swan King.  Order of the Swan was a religious association of European princes and nobles formed in the 15th century and revived in the 19th century in the time of King Ludwig II of Bavaria.  In Hindu tradition, the swan is associated with Saraswati and is a symbolism for spiritual perfection, transcendence and moksha.

Ludwig spent all the royal revenues on building castles.  Neuschwanstein Castle (‘New Swanstone Castle’) in the Alps is his best known project.  It has appeared in several Hollywood movies and served as the inspiration for Disneyland’s Sleeping Beauty Castle.

It is believed that the world famous Tchaikovsky’s ballet ‘Swan Lake’ reflects the life of Ludwig II.  Prince of the ‘Swan Lake’ was named Siegfried like the favorite Ludwig’s hero in the operas of Richard Wagner, whom Bavarian king generously patronized.  Sigurd is a legendary hero of Norse mythology.  See Odin & Scanda.  In the Soviet Union times ‘The Swan Lake’ ballet was shown on TV when its ruler died.  The ballet was repeatedly broadcast by all USSR TV channels when the Soviet Union collapsed in August 1991.  Tchaikovsky foresaw in his ballet (1877) the circumstances of Ludwig’s tragic death (1886).  The Swan king’s favorite theme was the Holy Grail legend.

Serpukhov is also famous for its wonderworking icon of the Mother of God called ‘The Inexaustible Cup’.  In ‘The Teaching of Living Ethics’ (or Agni Yoga) created by Helena Roerich and Morya (one of the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom) it is stated that the true meaning of the symbol of the Cup is the acceptance and accumulation of spiritual gifts that are used to serve the World.

In the East, the Buddha’s Cup is revered as having the great spiritual significance.  This Cup came to the Roerichs in 1934 when they lived in Kullu.  In exactly the same way they received in 1923 the Chintamani Stone while staying in Paris.  Moving along the Earth, these sacred artifacts find themselves in places that are centers of evolutionary work, coming at different epochs to different people chosen by the Shambala.

The Buddha has passed his cup to the inhabitants of Vaishali.  After his death, it was transferred to Purushapura, the city of Purusha (Sanskrit: Purusa), modern Peshawar.  The Purusa or true Self is the ultimate goal of all Vedic practices and all Vedantic philosophy.  Purusha (Purusa) is a Sanskrit term for the Cosmic Being behind the Universe, the Spirit within all things.

Svyatoslav Roerich was the last of the known keepers of the Buddha’s Cup.  He estimated its age from 10 000 to 12 000 years.  He indicated that it had a water pattern.  It could be related to the sign of Aquarius (Kumbha).  Mankind is entering the Age of Aquarius, which should become a long-awaited Golden Age for the planet.

Kashira is one of the oldest cities of the Moscow region.  Kashira is located on the Oka River, ~115 km. south of Moscow and ~60 km. from the point of conjunction of the rivers Nara and Oka.  The city Kashira is named after the Kashira River and the first settlement was built on the conjunction of the Kashira River and the Oka River.  See Kashmir & Kashyapa and Oka & Gujarat.

Naro-Fominsk is located on the Nara River, ~20 km. south from its source and ~70 km. southwest from Moscow.  As it is said above (section IV), Desna River (Pakhra basin) begins in Naro-Fominsk district of the Moscow Region.  Naro-Fominsk is a town whose present name came from two settlements – Nara and Fominskoe.

Nara-Narayana is a Hindu deity pair. Nara-Narayana is the twin-brother avatar of the God Vishnu on Earth, working for the preservation of Dharma or righteousness. In the concept of Nara-Narayana, the human soul Nara is the eternal companion of the Divine Narayana.  The Hindu epic Mahabharata identifies the God Krishna (an avatar of Vishnu) with Narayana and Arjuna — the chief hero of the epic — with Nara.  There are striking similarities and the parallels between the great battle of Kuru filed described in the Mahabharata (one of the most important Hindu epics) and the Kursk battle that changed the course of the Second World War and the European history.  See Kursk battle.

Naro-Fominsk’s local football club founded in 1929 had name Nara-Desna from 2005 to 2007.  Approximately 100 km. south of Nara-Desna is city Kaluga.  It is believed that Vyasa compiled the Puranas (see Section VI) in the beginning of Kali Yuga.  Kaluga’s motto on the city’s coat of arms is «The Cradle of Space Exploration».  In the Kaluga region there are rivers with Sanskrit names called Agra and Ugra.  See Sanskrit names in Kaluga region.

As it is said above, the name Naro-Fominsk is made of  local river Nara and former village Fominskoe.  Fominskoe means named after apostle Foma (Thomas).  He is traditionally believed to be the first Christian missionary who came to India in 52 AD to preach the Gospel and spread the Christian faith.  Thomas the Apostle was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, according to the New Testament.  According to tradition, Thomas was allegedly killed near Chennai in 72AD.  That place now is called St.Thomas Mount.

St.Thomas Mount is 10 km. from the garden of Theosophical Society in Adyar (Chennai).  The Theosophy Society – Adyar is the name of a section of the Theosophical Society founded by Russian Madam Blavatsky in 1875.  She was born into an aristocratic in the Russian Empire in Yekaterinoslav (modern Ukrainian city Dnipro) located near the confluence of Dnieper and Samara Rivers.    Dnieper River is one of the major rivers of Europe (fourth by length).  Dnieper River starts in the Smolensk region (Russia).  The Smolensk region is also the place of sources of the rivers Desna (tributary of the Dnieper) and Urga.  See Sanskrit names in Smolensk region.  The first European who reached India was Russian merchant Afanasy Nikitin (middle of 15th century).  He died in Smolensk on his way from India to his native city Tver.  See Sanskrit names in Tver region.  A famous Russian poet and statesman Tyutchev was born in his noble family’s estate in Bryansk region.  The estate is located few kilometers from the shore of the mentioned Desna River.  Tyutchev is the author of a short poem that precisely characterizes Russia:

Who would grasp Russia with the mind?

For her no yardstick was created:

Her soul is of a special kind,

By faith alone appreciated.

(translated by John Dewey)

In the south of Chennai, next to Adyar (and the Theosophical Society) there is residential neighborhood Thiruvanmiyur.  Its name derives from Thiru-Valmiki-Ur, meaning location of the temple of Valmiki.  This small temple is believed to be 1300 years old and is located in the middle of the East Coast Road, lying opposite to the Marundeeswarar temple.  A few decades ago, this was a part of the Marundeeswarar temple land.  It is said that Valmiki came to the Marundeeswarar temple to worship Siva and was blessed here.  At this point is the locality Kamaraj Nagar.  See Russian rivers Kama and its tributary Siva in Russian Kama & Siva.

Another temple associated with Valmiki in Chennai is Siva temple in Koyambedu.  This place is just 12 km. northwest from Thiruvanmiyur and the Marundeeswarar temple. Practically similar distance is from the neighboring Theosophical Society.  The original name of Koyambedu was Kusa-Lava-Puri, with two temples dedicated to Narayana and Siva, situated close to each other.  According to legend, both the temples existed during Valmiki’s time.  It is said that his ashram was located at this point.  Valmiki provided shelter in his ashram to Rama’s pregnant wife Sita when she was exiled by her husband to the forest due to the gossip.  Here she gave birth to the above mentioned twin boys Lava and Kusha.  They were brought up by Valmiki along with their mother Sita and Valmiki taught Lava and Kusha to sing the Ramayana (the story of Rama).

Valmiki himself got the story of Rama from Vedic sage Narada who was half human and half God.  The highest peak and its foothills river of the Urals (the world’s oldest extant mountain range) in Russia still bear ancient name Naroda.  See Narada in the Urals.

After the birth Valmiki was given name Ratnakara that is a Sanskrit term for ‘ocean’ and ‘repository of jewels’.  Narada gave him the new name and the status of Maharishi (great sage) after he performed tapasya (deep meditation) for several years and became the foremost of ascetics.  Huge anthills formed around Ratnakara and this earned him the name of Valmiki.  In Sanskrit, the word ‘Valmika’ means an ‘ant hill’.  Since with the help and blessing of Narada Ratnakara came out of the ant hill, he got the name of Valmiki.  It is believed that during this deep meditation his whole mind was concentrate on the chanting of the name of the Lord Rama.

Some believe that initially Ratnakara chanted the word ‘Mara’ that became ‘Rama’, the name of god Vishnu.  Sanskrit word ‘mara’ has the same meaning in the Russian and other Slavic people folklore.  Mara is a Slavic and Baltic goddess associated with seasonal rites based on the idea of death and rebirth of nature. Mara is associated with winter’s death and rebirth of nature in the coming of spring.  This Slavic festival with bonfires has a common base with Hindu festival Holi.  See  Prahlada in Russia.

 

VI. Lama

In Tibetan Buddhism, Lama is a title for a teacher of the Dharma.  It is similar to the Sanskrit term guru.  Lama River (~140 km.) starts in Moscow region and flows into Shosha River in neighboring Tver region near its border with Moscow region.  Lama’s source is ~90 km. from the center of Moscow.

Lama is the name of a river and one the biggest lakes of the Putorana Plateau on the north of Krasnoyarsk krai.  In Sanskrit, puraa literally means ‘ancient, old’.  Indeed, there are ancient ruins with megalithic foundation in inaccessible places of the plateau.  It is believed that they belong to the unknown ancient civilization, flourished here thousands year ago when the climate in Siberia was warm.  The Indian Puranas is encyclopedic source of knowledge about the history of the Universe, the genealogy of gods, kings, heroes, as well as Hindu philosophy and cosmology.  Vyasa is credited as the compiler of the Puranas.  His teacher was Narada.  See Narada in the Urals.  The distance from Moscow to the Putorana Plateau is ~3000 km.  Not by chance that Russia’s geographical center is situated on the Putorana Plateau and Lake Lama is its pearl.

The Putorana Plateau is the only large site fully folded by basalt.  This is the world’s second largest trap plateau after the Dean plateau in India.  The area of ​​the plateau is 250 thousand km2 and comparable to the territory of Great Britain (244 thousand km2).  There are more than 25 000 lakes that together form the second largest store of fresh water in Russia by capacity after Lake Baikal.

The plateau’s the Talnikovy Waterfall is the highest waterfall in Eurasia.  It falls into the Talnikova River, a left tributary of the Kureika River (888 km.).  The root of the word Kureika is Kur.  See Kursk battle.  The Kureika is a major right tributary of the Yenisei River (5 540 km.) that is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.  The Kureika River falls from the Putorana Plateau.  The village of Kureika used to have a museum dedicated to Joseph Stalin, who was exiled there in 1914 — 1917.  The year 1917 is the time of Russian revolution and birth of Indira Gandhi.

VII.  Saurovo

In Sanskrit, Saura means solar, divine, worshipper of the Sun, right eye, etc.  It aligns it with the Right Eye of Horus in a Golden Sun Disc that was the symbol of Egyptian Mystery School during the reign of Echnaton (Amenhotep IV).  He was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who lived in 14th century BC.  Echnaton abandoned traditional Egyptian polytheism and introduced worship centered on Aton that was the disk of the Sun.  Echnaton praised Aten as the creator, giver of life, and nurturing spirit of the world.

Saurovo is ~70 km. east of the Kremlin (center of Moscow).  It is a village located on the Klyazma River.  The Klyazma is a tributary of the Oka River whose name has links with Indian state Gujarat.

Next to Saurovo is village called Kurovo.  The last three letters (ovo) indicate a status of settlement.  Both of them have Sanskrit roots – Saur and Kur, respectively.  The distance to the rivers Yada and Agra in Vladimir region is ~200 km.

Saura is a religion and denomination of Hinduism, originating as a Vedic tradition.  Followers of Saura worship Surya.  The Saura Purana means the Purana of sun-god Surya.  See the Russian river Sura.

Saurashtra is a peninsular region covering about a third of Gujarat state.  Surat (former Suryapur) is the economical capital of Gujarat.  It is believed to be 4th fastest growing city of the world.  Surat polishes over 90% of the world’s rough diamonds.

Saura was a Native American Indian tribe reported in various parts of South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia.  The Sauratown Mountains were named after the Sauras lived in the area before European settlers arrived in the early 1700s.  After attacks in the late 17th  century and early 18th century the Sauras became extinct as a tribe, although some descendants survived as remnant peoples.  Saura once lived at the confluence of the Pee Dee and Yadkin Rivers.

See Yada River in Vladimir region and Yoda River in Yaroslavl region.  Yadu is one of the five Indo-Aryan tribes mentioned in the Rig Veda. Krishna was a descendant of Yadu.  Yoda is more famous as the Grand Master of the Jedi Order in the Star Wars movie series.  In Sanskrit, Yoda means ‘warrior’.

The present town of Eden has grown on the Saura Indian villages.  Garden of Eden or biblical Paradise is the «garden of God».  The story of Adam and Eve is central to the belief that God created human beings in a Garden of Eden.  The distance between the Yaroslavl rivers Yoda and Edoma is less than 25 km.

Saura was a Native American Indian tribe reported in various parts of South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia.  The Sauratown Mountains were named after the Sauras lived in the area before European settlers arrived in the early 1700s.  After attacks in the late 17th  century and early 18th century the Sauras became extinct as a tribe, although some descendants survived as remnant peoples.  Saura once lived at the confluence of the Pee Dee and Yadkin Rivers.  See Yada River in Vladimir region and Yoda River in Yaroslavl region.

The present town of Eden has grown on the Saura Indian villages.  Garden of Eden or biblical Paradise is the «garden of God».  The story of Adam and Eve is central to the belief that God created human beings in a Garden of Eden.  God also placed in the garden  the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and prohibited the man from eating the fruit of this tree.  A serpent helped Eve eat fruit from the forbidden tree.  Adam took some of the fruit.  They got knowledge.

Serpent has always been the symbol of wisdom in Central America, Asia and India.  Naga is the Sanskrit word for a deity, a great and wise snake.  Nags Head is a town in Dare County, North Carolina.  It is ~380 km. from town Eden (former Saura village).  It may be just a coincidence, but only the brave dare go further.

Sauron is the Dark Lord and main antagonist of Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings.  Sauron secretly forged the One Ring that could rule them all.  In The Lord of the Rings the Earth is called the Arda.

Ardatov is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia in the Volga basin.  In Sanskrit, Arda means ‘pressing hard’.  The ending ‘tov’ refers to a settlement status.  Often it is pronounced as ‘tav’.  Read from the right to the left it is ‘vat’.  In Sanskrit, vat means ‘enclosure’.

There is Ardovat River (31 km.) that is a tributary of Kanadeika River (57 km.) in Ulyanovsk region.  Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka.  Its capital Bangalore is associated with The Roerichs and Madame Blavatsky who searched for ancient links between Russia and India.  Karnataka and Russia’s coat of arms both have two-headed birds.  The Ulyanovsk region has the biggest colony of the eagles depicted on the Russian coat of arm.  The source of the Sura River is also in the Ulyanovsk region.

One Ardatov is located in the Nizhny Novgorod region.  Another Ardatov is a town of Mordovia in the middle Volga River region of Russia.  Sauron is known as the Dark Lord of Mordor.  Mordovia also known in English as Mordvinia.  In Sanskrit, dvaina means ‘duality’ and ‘divine’.  See Russian rivers Northern Dvina and Western Dvina.  Major rivers of Mordovia include have Sanskrit roots: Moksha River, Sura River, Satis River, etc.

Mordovia’s capital is the city of Saransk.  The last letters ‘sk’ stand for a status of city.  In Sanskrit, sarana means ‘sermon’.  The Moksha people are a primary Mordvinian ethnic group.  They mostly live in the Volga and the Sura rivers regions.  The river Moksha belongs to the Volga basin.  As is said above, Moksa is a Sanskrit word (see section I).

Mordovian Ardatov is among the major towns located on the Alatyr River.  In the medieval Russian literature Alatyr is a great sacred stone.  Alatyr is associated with the altar located in the center of the world.  Altair is the brightest star in the Aquila constellation.  Aquila is Latin term for ‘eagle’ and it represents the bird that carried Zeus/Jupiter’s thunderbolts in Greco-Roman mythology.  See above about the eagles on the coat of arms of Russia and Karnataka.  Karna was the son of Surya.  The Russian river Sura starts in Ulyanovsk region.  It is the birthplace of Lenin, Russian communist revolution’s leader and the founder of the Soviet Union.

Appendix

Lenin’s Gorki

Desna is a major tributary of Pakhra River (Moskva River basin).  This Pakhra River flows near the world-known museum complex Lenin’s Gorki.  After the Soviet government moved from Saint-Petersburg to Moscow in 1918, the luxurious estate Gorki was nationalized for Lenin.  He was spending an increasing amount of time in the Gorki as his health declined after an assassination attempt.  He permanently lived and worked there in semi-retirement from 1923 to 1924.   After Lenin’s death, Gorki was renamed «Gorki Leninskiye» (meaning «Lenin’s Gorki»).

The monument called «The Death of the Leader» was unveiled in the Lenin’s Gorki park in 1958.  Its uniqueness is that Lenin here is depicted like the Dalai Lama.  His right arm and shoulder are naked.  See for Moscow region’s river called Lama (Section VI).

Buddhism (born in India) and Communism (born Europe) share the common ideas.  In the past some people even believed that Lenin was a reincarnation of the Buddha.   In 1926 the Roerichs brought to Moscow a famous letter from the Mahatmas to the Soviet government.  In addition to the letter, they sent a box with sacred earth to Lenin’s grave.  The Masters of the Ancient Wisdom called Lenin as their brother and recognized him as a Mahatma.  It is a Sanskrit word for ‘Great Soul’.

Stalin became the Soviet leader after Lenin’s passing away.  Initially, the above mentioned monument «The Death of the Leader» was a gift to Stalin’s 70th birthday celebrated in 1948.  The author and sculptor was Sergey Merkurov, a prominent Soviet sculptor-monumentalist.  He was the sculptor of the three biggest monuments of Stalin in the Soviet Union.  Merkurov was a cousin of George Gurdjieff, an influential early 20th century mystic, philosopher and spiritual teacher.  Gurdjieff taught to achieve full human potential.  Stalin and Gurdjieff used to study in the same theological seminary.  It is believed that Gurdjieff persuaded Stalin to change the year of his birth in order to become Russia’s ruler.

Before the revolution, the estate of Gorki belonged to various Muscovite noblemen from the 18th century.  Zinaida Morozova, the widow of Savva Morozov, purchased Gorki in 1909.  Her first husband Savva Morozov (died in 1905) was a Russian textiles magnate and philanthropist.  Many Indian now large companies would start from textile.  The Morozov family was the fifth richest in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century.  Remarkable are the name and surname of Savva Morozov.  Sava is a Hindu masculine given name.  Originally, Sava is a Sanskrit word with many meanings such as ‘kind of sacrifice’, ‘commander’, etc.  Surname Morozov is derived from the term Moroz, i.e. frost and prohlada.  Sanskrit verb ‘prahladate’ means ‘be refreshed’ and is equal to the Russian verb ‘prahladit’.  See Prahlada in Russia.

The Moskva River takes not only the above mentioned Pakhra River, but also the Pehorka River whose root (‘Pehor’) correlates to the name of Pehowa, one of the oldest and most sacred places in the Kurukshetra region (India).